Matera, a very unique city, is the second largest city by population in Basilicata, is also called the "Stone City" and "Underground City". It was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1993 and 2014 European Capital of Culture 2019. The uniqueness of Matera is mainly focused in the oldest part. The name Stone City is due to the particular residences built behind the Gravina of Matera. In Matera, you can find Sasso Barisano, the oldest part of the city, and Sasso Caveoso where housing - caves are located on staircases. The choice of living in this place has given the inhabitants through the centuries a safe life but certainly not easy one. In fact they had to sharpen their wits to ensure the inhabitants water when the city was under siege. Therefore, the major problem of the people was not concentrated on building of houses but rather of tanks and water sewage systems. For hygienic problems, in 1952 15.000 Materani moved into the new area of the city abandoning Sassi, but in 1986, a law was enacted on the recovery of old houses. Matera continued its magnificent way to revival also through the 2004 film The Passion of Mel Gibson..